howto: unwritten ocaml basics

September 10, 2020

I have recently been doing some coding in ocaml. So far, so good! However, even after a moderate amount of reading, searching, and even asking in the ocaml discord chat channel, it is clear to me that there are various essential knowledge gaps not well communicated in the manual or in realworldocaml. Here are a handful of hot ocaml bootstrapping tips.

How should I learn ocaml?

Do both.

How do I install ocaml?

Straight up, https://dev.realworldocaml.org/install.html.

Things lazy people should probably know before skipping required reading

  • ocaml and utop REPLs do not resolve modules in the same way your compiler will.

    • compiler: explicitly tell your compiler what packages to pull in (syntax varies), which is not the same as...
    • repl/toplevel: #require and open SomeModule only to expose functionality
  • Having your compiler and compiler configuration (e.g. dune library references) in order helps your developer tools

    • Even if you opam install <some module>, your editor may not pick it up until you've declared it properly in your dune file. 🤯. You may have thought your developer tooling (merlin, ocaml-lsp, & friends) just couldn't locate your package of interest. Fear not, it can, but everything demands that your compiler tooling be aligned as well.

How do I compile?

There are various compilers. ocamlc, ocamlbuild, ocamlopt, whatever.

Stop. Use dune in 2020. Who knows how this post will age, but start with dune. Don't bother consider looking at the others.

How do I compile to native-code vs byte-code, or vice-versa?

Read the dune docs.

How should I setup testing?

  1. Create a test application:
;dune
;...snip
(test
 (name test)
 (libraries ounit2 yourmodule)
 (modules test))

Ensure that you add your testing library/runner and the associated library you want to test. Obnoxiously, because you may have a heirarchy as such:

$ ls -l
dune
yourmodule.ml
test.ml

you must tell dune which *.ml files should be built by a specfic built target.

For example, for a layout like:

$ ls -l
dune
Replacements.ml
Redacto.ml
test.ml

my dune file looks simliar to:

(library
 ...
 (modules replacements))

(executable
 ...
 (modules redacto))

(test
 ...
 (modules test))

Each .ml file has one place to be built in dune's eyes.

How do I learn how to do async stuff?

You read Real World Ocaml.

Can I watch a video on how to do async stuff?

No. There's no focused content in video form, at least on YouTube, distilled down in a focused way. Maybe I'll be the guy to make that video ;).

How do I pragmatically use regex?

It took searching and finding Regular Expressions vs Parser Combinators in OCaml to finally come to a conclusion. re2 is generally seen as a good pick, but there is ~nil documentation on how to use it. The PCRE docs are good. The interfaces between re2 and pcre are similar, so if you learn one you kind of learn both. Start with PCRE if you want for ease of learning.

What are tools are at my disposal?

There is a standard library, it is only ok.

JaneStreet base and core seem to be the go to std libary replacements. And they literally do replace--override--aspects of the default standard library, versus an module that has no effect on your build. Don't expect to be able to have written some ocaml using the standard library, then bring in one of these and have things just continue to work--some minor refactors may be required. Install them from opam, per usual.

How do I debug my OCaml program?

As far as I know--you don't. printf? I've seen some hints that there may be tooling for emacs users? I've looked at the VSCode extensions, and there are some promising work out there, but they aren't compatible with ocaml@latest at the time of writing.

Is there an caml emoji?

🐫

Isn't it great?